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2018年自考语言与文化试题及答案

2020-08-03 18:56:05 来源:自学考试网 点击:8 作者:小呗老师

2018年自考语言与文化试题及答案

第一部分选择题

I. Each of the following incomplete statements is followed by four alternatives. Read each statement and the four alternatives carefully and decide which of the four alternatives best completes the statement.(20%)

1. In its broad sense culture is. ( )

A. whatever distinguishes one nation from all the other nations

B. the attributes of man

C. life way of a population

D. intellectual or academic development and artist creation become secondary

2. Language is_________, which means that speech is the primary medium of language

A. arbitrary B. vocal

C. symbolic D. human specific

3. Word______________frequently appears together with "boy", "man", "vessel" or "airliner" ( )

A. beautiful B. nice C. pretty D. handsome

4. Word "get" is derived from____________. ( )

A. Old Norse B. Latin

C. French D. Germany

5. _________is the name given to a young man or young woman who rejects authority, existing institution and conventional attitudes towards morality, style of dress, etc. ( )

A. Duke B. Cowboy

C. Hippie D. Knight

6. In English culture, "White" connotes_____________________. ( )

A. death B. longevity

C. immaturity D. innocence

7. The metaphorical expression "she cast her spell over me" illustrated that ( )

A. love is magic B. love is war

C. love is a physical force D. love is patient

8. "Even reckoning makes long friends." is a proverb that related to ( )

A. the history of England B. the English writing system

C. inpidualism D. English literature

9. "To cause one to feel fear, loathing, aversion, nervous anxiety" is synonymous to___________. ( )

A. "to make a face" B. "to make one’s flesh creep"

C. "to make a cat laugh" D. "to make bricks without straw"

10. "A proud of flesh" is derived from Shakespeare' s______________. ( )

A. Romeo and Juliet B. Anthony and Cleopatra

C. The Merchant of Venice D. King Lear

11. "The old Adam" is an allusion from______________________. ( )

A. literature B. religion

C. mythology D. history

12. "To kick off” is derived from______________. ( )

A. boxing B. American football

C. soccer D. baseball

13. "Friday" is named after Freya, _____________. ( )

A. goddess of music B. goddess of war

C. goddess of ocean D. goddess of heaven

14. A___________is an implied comparison between two or more unlike things. ( )

A. similes B. metaphors

C. associations D. tenor

15. "There are too many facts here for me to digest them all." is a metaphorical expression about ideas, which are___________ ( )

A. Food B. commodities

C. products D. plants

16. A blackleg is a person who_______________________. ( )

A. accepts work in place of strikers

B. is a scoundrel

C. is a member of a secret organization of Italian criminals and blackmailers which operated in the U.S.

D. is a traitor

17.The English equivalent for "贱内" is__________. ( )

A. my husband B. my wife

C. my son D. my daughter

18. One’s oral speech is always interpreted in relation to__________that accompanies his speech. ( )

A. oral language B. written language

C. body language D. verbal language

19. The first successful British colony was founded in______________, Virginia, in 1607. ( )

A. Plymouth B. Jamestown

C. New Hampshire D. New York

20. Some nonverbal messages are consistent with accompanying verbal message, which is the __________ function of nonverbal message. ( )

A. complementing B. contradicting

C. Regulating D. accenting

II. Each of the following incomplete statements is followed by four alternatives. Read each statement and the four alternatives carefully and decide which alternative can complete the statement .There might be more than one correct answer (10%)

21. The relationship between language, culture and thought is that ( )

A. they are three parts of a whole

B. language is determined by culture while culture is determined by thought

C. each of them can operate independently

D. the three aspects interact, each influencing and shaping the other two

22. The word (words)______________is (are) connected with history. ( )

A. scalp B. lynch

C. reformation D. bible

23. The most common English replies to thank are_____________. ( )

A. It is nothing B. It is my duty

C. Not at all D. It is my pleasure

24. When English speaking people part, they usually say___________. ( )

A. Good- bye B. It’s mice to meet you

C. See you tomorrow D. So long

25. are the proverbs, which are related to Greco – Roman civilization. ( )

A. Marry in May, repent always

B. Bacchus hath drowned more me than Neptune

C. Homer sometimes nods

D. Better to reign in hell than serve in heaven

26. "A purple passage" refers to an extremely ornate portion in______. ( )

A. music B. a literacy work

C. painting D. architecture

27. The euphemisms for the expression "backward countries" are________. ( )

A. underdeveloped countries B. developed countries

C. developing countries D. poor countries

28. In each of the following stretches of English, there is a textual connective which is underlined. Words__________ indicate the adversative relation between the adjoining sentences. ( )

A. You aren't leaving, are you? Because I've got something to say to you

B. I’d love to join in. Only I don’t know how to play

C. He showed no pleasure at hearing the news. Instead he looked even gloomier

D. All the figures were correct; they’d been checked. Yet the total came out wrong

29. Generally speaking, the main function of English newspaper reporting is____. ( )

A. to cheat the reader B. to advise the reader

C. to inform the reader D. to amuse the reader

30. The basic facial management techniques are________________. ( )

A. intensifying B. deintensifying

C. neutralizing D. masking

第二部分非选择题

III. Fill in each underlined space with a proper expression. (12%)

31. Language is the____________of cultural information.

32. __________is the communicative value an expression has in addition to the purely conceptual meaning.

33. "_________" interpreted as "freedom from undesirable intrusions" and regarded as a human right.

34. _______________are the smallest units of meaning.

35. You are a student of English. If you are complimented on your English, you may say___________.

36. If the person calling is a stranger, the person who answers the phone normally asks,________________.

37. The English proverbial equivalent for "对牛弹琴" is_______________.

38. "Every wise man breadth his enemy" is derived from______________by Geoffrey Chaucer.

39. In English blue is usually associated with___________.

40. _____________are frequently used in mass media about political, socioeconomic affairs and international relations to avoid the unpleasantness of some terms or expressions.

41. ____________refers to reasoning from the general to the particular or reasoning in which the conclusion about particulars follows necessarily from the general or universal promises.

42. Meaning is conveyed not only by words or verbal language but also by______.

IV. Answer the following questions briefly. (12%)

43. Is there any contrast between the Western people and the Chinese people as far as thought is concerned?

44.What conceptual difference is there between " 药店" and "drugstore"?

45. What is the difference between "to make a face" and its equivalent "做个鬼脸" in Chinese?

46. How would you explain the statement that the Chinese narrative and descriptive writing is often more ornate or flowery than English one?

47. What are the five categories of gesture?

48. Why is time so important to our lives?

V. Translation. {16%}

A. Translate the following into Chinese. (8 %)

49. Any port in a storm.

50. One fails into Scylla in seeking to avoid Charybdis.

51. Man proposes, God disposes.

52. The money after your own father.

B. Translate the following into English. (8 %)

53.衙门自古朝南开,有理无钱莫进来。

54.三思而后行。

55.节俭犹如点金石。

56.上帝要毁灭谁,必先夺其理性。

VI. Define the following terms. (10 %)

57. word

58. allusion

59. text structures

60. advertising

61. emblems

VII. Discuss the following topics: (20%)

62. Discuss in relation to culture the differences between triples of synonyms in English. (e. g. ask, question, interrogate.)

63. Discuss the reason of differences in spelling in American and British English.

参考答案

1.1.B 2.B 3.D 4.A 5.C 6.D 7.A 8.C 9.B 10.C 11.B 12.C 13.A 14.B 15.A 16.A 17.B 18.C 19.B 20.A

II. 21.AD 22.AB 23.CD 24.ACD 25.AC 26.ABCD 27.ACD 28.BCD 29.CD 30.ABCD

III. 31. carrier and container 32. Connotative meaning 33. Privacy 34. Morphemes 35. "Thank you for encouraging me" 36. "Who is calling, please?" 37. "Never cast your pearls before swine" 38. The Canterbury Tales 39. unhappy feelings 40. Euphemisms 41. Deduction 42. nonverbal communication systems

IV.43.The western people, who may have received strict training in formal logic, are good at abstract or logic thinking. The Chinese people are accustomed to artistic thinking.

44.The difference is that one can buy most kinds of medicine and some kinds of medical apparatus in a "药店", but without a doctor' s prescription one can buy only a few kinds of medicine and one can also buy toiletries, food and various other small articles in a drugstore.

45.The difference is that the Chinese people feel it necessary to use the modifier "鬼" to show that the "face' is unusual, whereas the English speaking people do not. 46. Compare with English writing. Chinese narrative and descriptive writing is more ornate or flowery in a Chinese text. One can find not only

adjectives but also similes and metaphors. However, there are few similes and metaphors in an English one. In addition, frequent use of hyperbolas is allowed in Chinese descriptive writing.

47. Gestures can be classified into five categories: emblems, illustrators, regulators affect displays , and adapters.

48. Time is very important to our lives. Firstly, our daily activities are time scheduled. Secondly, our oral language clearly makes time an over riding force.

V.A.49. 船在暴风雨中不择港口或:慌不择路

50.为避虎穴,落入狼窝。

51.谋事在人,成事在天。

52.父子间尽可能清帐。

B. 53. Court doors may open, but not to the poor

54. Look before you lap

55. Thrift is philosopher’s store

56. Whom God would ruin, he first deprives of reason.

VI. 57. Words are units of expression which language users can intuitively recognize in either speech or writing. In speech words are sequences of speech sounds between pauses, and in writing words are sequences of letters between blanks.

58. Allusions are implied or indirect references to characters or events from culture: literature, legends, history, religion, sports, etc.

59. "Text structures" refer to the ways in which the parts of a text are organized and related to one another to form a meaningful whole.

60. Advertising is defined as "the nonpersonal communication usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, service or ideas by identified sponsors through different media.

61. Emblems ore physical acts that can fully take the place of spoken words.

VII.62. The Norman Conquest brought the French language into England. At that time France was culturally more advanced than England and used mainly in formal and literary contexts (e.g. questions) .English words were mainly used when common topics were talked about(e. g. ask) . English has been closely related to Latin as well. The English ancestors–the German speaking Angles, Saxons and Jutes borrowed from the culturally more advanced Latin – speaking Roman dozens of words from Latin .The Christianization of Great Britain in the seventh and eighth centuries, the Renaissance period and the Industrial Revolution saw many more Latin words (e. g. interrogate) enter English and found their use in academic writings or legal, religious or official documents. As a result, in modern English many Latin words, loan words from French and words of English origin are used alongside to from triples of synonyms.

63. The differences in spelling between American and British English resulted from different spelling reform policies adopted in the U. S. A and the U. K. It seems that the Americans adopted a more radical spelling reform policy than the Englishmen. English is a language notorious for the non – correspondence between pronunciation and spelling. A letter or a combination of letters may be pronounced in different ways when they occur in different words. The Englishmen tend to naturalize the pronunciation but retain the spelling of the loan words, while the Americans tend to naturalize the spelling of the words that demonstrate severe non – correspondence between pronunciation and spelling. This causes many differences in spelling between American and British English.

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