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I. Directions: Explain the following terms, using one or two examples for illustration. (3%×5=15%)
5. perlocutionary act
Ⅱ. Directions: Read each of the following statements carefully. Decide which one of the four choices best completes the statement and put the letter A, B, C or D in the brackets. (2%×15=30%)
( )1. As modern linguistics aims to describe and analyze the language people
actually use, and not to lay down rules for "correct" linguistic behavior,
it is said to be ___________.
A、 prescriptive B、 sociolinguistic
C、 descriptive D、 psycholinguistic
( )2. In English, “pill” and “bill” are ___________.
A. a phonemic contrast B. complementary distribution
C. assimilation D a minimal pair
( )3. Of the three branches of phonetics, the longest established, and until recently the most highly developed, is___________phonetics.
A. auditory B. acoustic
C. articulatory D. none of the above three
( )4. What the element ‘-es’ indicates is third person singular, present tense, the element ‘-ed’ past tense, and ‘-ing’ progressive aspect. Since they are the smallest unit of language and meaningful, they are also___________.
A. phonemes B. morphemes
C. allophones D. phones
( )5 .In terms of the place of articulation, the following sounds [t][d][s][z][n] share the feature of ___________.
A. palatal B. alveolar
C. bilabial D. dental
( )6.The fact that different languages have different words for the same object is good proof that human language is ___________.
A. arbitrary B.non-arbitrary
C. logical D.non-productive
( )7.The pair of words “lend”and “borrow”are ___________
A.gradable antonyms B.converse antonyms
( )8.The function of the sentence “A nice day, isn't it?”is ___________
A.informative B.phatic C.directive D.performative
( )9.The semantic components of the word “gentleman” can be expressed as___________.
A.+animate,+male,+human, +adult B.+animate,+male,+human,-adult
( )10.The utterance "We're already working 25 hours a day, eight days a week."obviously violates the maxim of ___________.
A.quality B.quantity C.relation D.manner
( )11. The sentence “The baby smiled.” is a___________.
A. two-place predication B. three-place predication
C. no-place predication D. one-place predication
( )12. “John killed Bill but Bill didn’t die” is a (n) ___________.
A. entailment B. presupposition
C. anomaly D. contradiction
( )13. What essentially distinguishes semantics and pragmatics is whether in the study of meaning _________ is considered.
A. reference B. speech act
C. context D. practical usage
( )14. A sentence is a _________ concept, and the meaning of a sentence is often studied in isolation.
A. pragmatic B. grammatical
C. mental D. conceptual
( )15. The sentence structure is _________.
A. only linear B. only hierarchical
C. complex D. both linear and hierarchical
Ⅲ. Directions: Judge whether each of the following statements is true or false. Put a T for true or F for false in the brackets in front of each statement. (2%×10=20%)
( )1. In modern linguistic studies, the written form of language is given
more emphasis than the spoken form for a number of reasons.
( )2. The compound word "bookstore" is the place where books are sold. This
indicates that the meaning of a compound is the sum total of the meanings of its components.
( )3. Only when a maxim under Cooperative Principle is blatantly violated
and the hearer knows that it is being violated, do conversational implicatures arise.
( )4. All words may be said to contain a root morpheme.
( )5.The word “photographically” is made up of 5morphemes.
( )6. A general difference between phonetics and phonology is that
phonetics is focused on the production of speech sounds while phonology is
more concerned with how speech sounds distinguish meaning.
( )7. The relationship between the embedded clause and its matrix clause is one of a part to the whole.
( )8.“The student” in the sentence “The student liked the linguistic lecture”, and “The linguistic lecture” in the sentence “The linguistic lecture liked the student.” belong to the same syntactic category.
( )9. “It is raining hard” is a one-place predication sentence.
( )10. Componential analysis is based on the belief that the meaning of a word cannot be dissected into meaning components, called semantic feature.
Ⅳ. Answer the following questions. (35%)
1. Give the description of the following sound segments in English. (5%)
2. What are the major distinctions between langue and parole? (5%)
3. According to the ways antonyms differ, how many groups can we classify antonyms into? Illustrate them with examples. (5%)
4. Paraphrase the sentence “The boy saw the man with the telescope.” by drawing the constituent structure trees for each possible interpretation. (10%)
5. What are the four maxims of the CP? Comment on the following conversation in terms of Grice’s Cooperative Principle:
A: Where’ve you been?