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Directions:Read each of the following statements carefully. Decide which one of the four choices best completes the statement and put the letter A,B,C or D in the brackets.(2%×10=20%)
1.The famous quotation from Shakespeare’s play “Romeo and Juliet”: “A rose by any other name would smell as sweet” well illustrates _______.( )
A.the conventional nature of languageB.the creative nature of language
C.the universality of language D.the big difference between human language and animal communication
2.Of the following sound combinations， only _______ is permissible according to the sequential rules in English.( )A.kibl B.bkil C.ilkb D.ilbk
3.The sentence that has a NP and a VP can be shown in a _______ formula “S→NP VP”。( )
A.hierarchical B.linear C.tree diagram D.vertical
4.It is the _______ on Case assignment that states that a Case assignor and a Case recipient should stay adjacent to each other.( )
A.Case Condition B.parameter C.Adjacent Condition D.Adjacent Parameter
5.Predication analysis is a way to analyze _______ meaning.
A.phoneme B.word C.phrase D.sentence
6.According to Searle，those illocutionary acts whose point is to commit the speaker to some future course of action are called _______.( )
A.commisives B.directives C.expressives D.declaratives
7.The term _______ linguistics may be defined as a way of referring to the approach which studies language change over various periods of time and at various historical stages.
A.synchronic B.diachronic C.comparative D.historical comparative
8.The way in which people address each other depends on their age, sex, social group and personal relationship. The English system of address forms frequently used includes first name, last name, title+last name, _______, and kin term.A.title+first name B.title+title C.title alone D.first name+last name+title
9.Language and thought may be viewed as two independent circles overlapping in some parts. When language and thought are identical or closely parallel to each other， we may regard thought as “subvocal speech，” and speech as “_______”。( )
A.vocal thought B.subvocal thoughtC.covert thought D.overt thought
10.Whcih of the following best states the behaviorist view of child language acquisition _______.( )
A.Language acquisition is a process of habit formation
B.Language acquisition is the species-specific property of human beings
C.Children are born with an innate ability to acquire language
D.Humans are equipped with the neural prerequisites for language and language use
Directions:Fill in the blank in each of the following statements with one word,the first letter of which is already given as a clue.Note that you are to fill in ONE word only,and you are not allowed to change the letter given.(1%×10=10%)
11.In the course of time， the study of language has come to establish close links with other branches of s________ studies， such as sociology and psychology.
12.Clear  and dark[ƚ]are allophones of the same one phoneme /1/.They never take the same position in sound combinations， thus they are said to be in c________ distribution.
13.A r________ is often seen as part of a word， but it can never stand by itself although it bears clear， definite meaning. 14.A c________ sentence contains two or more clauses， one of which is incorporated in the other.
15.That the denial of one member of two words implies the assertion of the other is the characteristic of c________ antonyms. 16.While the meaning of a sentence is abstract and decontextualized， that of an u________ is concrete and context-dependent. 17. Phonological rules may move phonemes from one place in the string to another. For example， Modern English verb ask was Old English askian， with the /k/preceding the/s/.Sound change as a result of sound movement is known as m________.18.In many societies of the world， we find a large number of people who speak more than one language. As a characteristic of societies， b________ inevitably results from the coming into contact of people with different cultures and different languages. 19.The brain’s neurological specialization for language is called linguistic I ________， which is specific to human beings. 20.In order to acquire a second language， learners will subconsciously use their first language knowledge in learning a second language. This is know as language t________.
Ⅲ.True of False question
Directions: Judge whether each of the following statements is true or false. Put a T for true or F for false in the brackets in front of each statement. I (2%×10=20%)
21.In the history of any language the writing system always came into being before the spoken form.
( )22.In English， long vowels are also tense vowels because when we pronounce a long vowel such as/i：/，the larynx is in a state of tension.
( )23.A compound is the combination of only two words.
( )24.“The student” in the sentence “The student liked the linguistic lecture.”，and “The linguistic lecture” in the sentence “The linguistic lecture liked the student.”belong to the same syntactic category.
( )25.Linguistic forms having the same sense may have different references in different situations while linguistic forms with the same reference always have the same sense.
( )26.An important difference between presupposition and entailment is that presupposition，unlike entailment，is not vulnerable to negation. That is to say, if a sentence is negated, the original presupposition is still true.
( )27.The pision of English into Old English， Middle English， and Modern English is nonconventional and not arbitrary.
( )28.Language reflects sexism in society. Language itself is not sexist， just as it is not obscene; but it can connote sexist attitudes as well as attitudes about social taboos or racism.
( )29.If a child is deprived of linguistic environment， he or she is unlikely to learn a language successfully later on.
( )30.When children learn to distinguish between the sounds of their language and the sounds that are not part of the language， they can acquire any sounds in their native language once their parents teach them.
Directions: Explain the following terms, using one or two examples if necessary.
31.cultural transmission (as a design feature of human language)32.phonic medium of language33.voicing 34.inflectional morphemesn35.reference36.locutionary act 37.protolanguage 38.ethnic dialect 39.registers 40.acculturation
Ⅴ.Answer the following questions.(10%×2=20%)
41.Why do we say tree diagrams are more advantageous and informative than linear structure in analyzing the constituent relationship among linguistic elements Support your statement with examples.
42.Describe the process of language perception， comprehension and production.