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2018年自考《英语翻译》练习试题及答案

2020-07-28 14:24:33 来源:自学考试网 点击:4 作者:小呗老师

2018年自考《英语翻译》练习试题及答案

参考答案见最后两页。

I.Fill in the blanks in the following sentences:(30%)

严复在《天演论·译例言》(1895)中提出:译事三难_____________。此后100多年来,这就成了我国译界的一个重要的翻译标准。/3

2.我国大学英语专业八级考试对翻译的要求:认识英汉的表达差异,掌握基本技巧,能够翻译当今英语国家报刊杂志的时文,译文________________。/4

3.美国的翻译理论家奈达博士(E.A. Nida)在其《翻译理论与实践》一书中将读者(译文受众)引入翻译标准,提出了_____________________________、_______________________________(注意此两格用中英文填写)的翻译原则。他认为,翻译就是“用最贴切、最自然的对等的译入语从语义和文体两方面再现原文信息”的过程,动态对等的标准就是译文的读者和原文的读者在感受上基本相同。/4

4.Six guidelines in the employment of dictionaries in translation:/6

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

5.鲁迅:比如一个名词或动词,写不出,创作时可以回避,翻译却不成,和还得想,一直弄到头昏眼花,好象脑子里面摸一个急于要开_________的钥匙,却没有。/1

6.严复:一名之立,旬月__________。/2

7.陆殿扬先生就曾明确指出:Translate ___________, if possible, or, appeal to free translation./1

8.乔姆斯基关于深层结构与表层结构的理论,对我们认识此点不无裨益。所谓深层结构,就是运用短语结构规则和词项插入规则后所得到的结构,它包含句子成分间的语法关系和深层语义。所谓表层结构,______________________________________________________。/2

9.Nida认为,在一定条件下,才可以改变形式。他为此提出了改变形式的五个条件:/5

a/

b/

c/

d/

e/

10.Nida认为:不合乎以上五个条件,就不能随便更改;必须保持形式的一致,也就是采取________的方法。/1

11.Translations are like women – when they are faithful they are not beautiful, when they are beautiful they are not faithful.此比喻与我国老子的一个说法不谋而合。老子说____________________/2

II.Sentence translation:(24%)

1.This calls into question all of our assumptions that gay men are feminine.

2.One can’t think of Africa without thinking of Egypt, the cradle of an ancient civilization, nor of Egypt without the Nile.

3.Mary never accepted an invitation unless Anne was included in it. It was a case of love me, love my dog.

4.And as to the chapter of accidents which counts for so much in the book of success, I could only hope that it was closed.

5.Translations are like matchmakers; they bring the praise of some half-veiled beauty and arouse an irresistible longing for the original.

6.The real escapist can watch a free film and sip champagne on some services.

7.Tess set up in bed, lost in vague interspace between dreams and this information.

8.If we do not hang together, we shall most assuredly hang separately.

9.It is a long lane that has no turning. 

10.Health programs initiated in work environments, health clinics, hospitals and schools could be improved with more inpidual tailoring.

11.Having sex once or twice a week gives a boost to the immune system that could help ward off colds and flu, New Scientist magazine said Wednesday.

12.Strike at him with your hand; and to him, the aspect of the matter is, what to you it would be, if an acre(英亩)of red clay, ten feet thick, tore itself up from the ground and came crashing down with an aim. He steps out of the way of your hand, and alights(落下)on the back of it. You cannot terrify him, nor govern him, nor persuade him, nor convince him.

III. Sentence translation(20%):

1/ Most of us, however, take life for granted. We know that one day we must die, but usually we picture that day as far in the future. When we are in buoyant (本义:有浮力的) health, death is all but unimaginable. We seldom think of it. The days stretch out in an endless vista(展望). So we go about our petty tasks, hardly aware of our listless (冷漠的) attitude toward life./7

2/ It is the same old story of not being grateful for what we have until we lose it, of not being conscious of health until we are ill./6

3/ I have often thought it would be a blessing if each human being were stricken blind and deaf for a few days at some time during his early adult life. Darkness would make him more appreciative of sight; silence would teach him the joys of sound. /7

IV.Passage translation(26%):

“We are not sure what this means,'' said Dr. George Carlo, who headed the industry's $27 million safety research project from 1993 until last year. “This could be a colossal (巨大的) coincidence or the tip of the iceberg(冰山),'' said Carlo, an epidemiologist (流行病学家)and lawyer. / 4

With 86 million cellular phone users in the United States alone and 30,000 new users signing up daily, “this translates into a potentially significant public health problem, should the use of these devices even slightly increase the risk of adverse health effects,'' the FDA says. /10

If you're concerned about the microwave radiation(辐射)emitted(发出)from your cell phone, the FDA suggests these precautions: /2

Avoid using cell phones for long durations. “Time is a key factor in how much exposure a person receives,'' the agency is advising consumers. People should use convention telephones for longer conversations, the agency says. /3

If cell phones must be used for lengthy calls, the FDA advises switching to a model that places greater distance between the user's head and the phone “since the (radiation) exposure level drops off dramatically with distance.'' /4

For example, headsets or earphones let users make calls while keeping the antenna(天线) several feet from the head. Another example is a car phone with the antenna on the outside of the car. /3

参考答案

I.Fill in the blanks in the following sentences:(30%)

1.信达雅 / 9

2.忠实、通顺 / 10

3.“动态对等”(dynamic equivalence)、“功能对等”(functional equivalence)/11

4.a/ Glaring errors in ECT derived from the take-it-for-granted attitude –– Dictionary is indispensable.

b/ Mechanical reference fails the translators – Dictionary is not always so reliable.

c/ English to English dictionary is sometimes a better helper.

d/ Never confine your reference to one dictionary.

e/ Divergent thought works when dictionaries fail to work.

f/ Dictionaries cannot be expected to be always correct, esp. the dictionaries compiled by Chinese scholars. / 6

5.开箱子的 / 2

6.踟躇 / 3

7.Literally / 4

8.就是在深层结构上运用转换规则衍生出来实际运用的句子。 / 5

9.a/ 直译会导致意义上的错误时;

b/ 引入外来语形成语义空白(semantic zero),读者有可能自己填入错误的意义时;

c/ 形式对等引起严重的意义晦涩时;

d/ 形式对等引起作者原意所没有的歧义时;

e/ 形式对等违反译入语的语法或文体规范时。/ 6

10.直译 / 7

11.美言不信,信言不美。 /8

II.Translate:(24%)

1.这就使我们的男同性恋者女性化的设想值得商榷了。/3

2.想起非洲,人们不可能不想到作为古代文明发祥地之一的埃及;而想起埃及,也不可能不想到尼罗河。/2

3.如果有什么人邀请玛丽而不请按妮,玛丽就不会去。这真是一个“如果你爱我,就要爱我的狗 / 如果你爱我,就得爱属于我的一切”的例子。/1

4.成功的人生是一本书,而这本书里,巧合则是至关重要的一个章节。而对于这种巧合,我现在却不敢奢求。/12

5.翻译作品好象媒人:他们给你带来对某个清纱半掩的美人的称赞,从而引起你很想一见其人的本来面目的欲望。/11

6.在某些航线上,想解闷的人,可以看看免费电影,喝喝香槟。/ 10

7.苔丝从床上坐起来,一听这个话,一半朦胧,一半清醒,在那儿发愣。/ 4

8.我们必须共同上战场,否则就得分别上刑场。/ 5

9.无论多长的巷子也有拐弯之处。(路必有弯,事必有变。)/ 6

10.如果你以掌击蝇,其感受如同一英亩见方、十英尺之厚的红士拔地而起,突然劈头盖脑地向你砸来一般。它避开你的掌心,又飘然落在你的手背上。你唬不住它,也管不了它,劝它不动,也说它不服。/ 7

11.在工作环境、健康诊所、医院和学校业已实施的健康方案可以有所改进,使之增加个人的针对性。 / 8

12.每周做爱一到两次能够强化人体的免疫系统,能够避免感冒或流感的侵袭,《新科学家》杂志周三说。/ 9

III. Sentence translation(20%):

1/ 然而,我们大多数人都把生命视作理所当然。我们知道迟早我们会离开这个世界,但是,我们通常把这一天想象得遥遥无期。我们身强力壮之时,死亡是不可思议的。我们很少想到死。日复一日,光阴无限。我们为区区小事而奔忙,碌碌无为而不知自身对待生命的态度何等消极冷漠。/ 3

2/ 事情往往如此:失去之物方知贵,病来才晓健康好。/ 1

3/ 我常常这样想,假如每个人在步入成年时,骤然失明失聪几日,那也许是天赐之福。黑暗使人珍惜光明,寂静教人倍觉声音之欢乐。/ 2

IV.Passage translation(26%):

1/从1993年直到去年一直在领导工业界提供的二千七百万美元的安全研究项目的乔治·卡罗博士说:“我们还不能肯定着意味着什么。”身兼流行病学家和律师的卡罗说:“这可能是一种罕见的巧合,也可能是冰山一角。”

2/食品和药物管理局说,仅美国就有手机使用者八千六百万人,每天登记的新用户有三万之众,“假如使用这种玩艺只是稍有危害健康的风险,这也将酿成重大的公共健康的问题。”

3/如果你对手机发出的微波辐射感到忧虑,食品和药物管理局建议你采取下列预防措施:

4/ –避免长时间使用手机。代理商劝告消费者说,“一个人接受多少辐射,时间是关键因素。”代理商还说,人们应使用传统电话进行长时间的交谈。

5/ —如果需要使用手机作长时间的交谈,食品和药物管理局建议改用距离使用者头部较远的机型,“因为辐射强度随着距离急剧减少。”

6/ 例如,头戴式受话器或耳塞既能让使用者通话,又能使天线距离头部几英尺之外。另一个例子是车用电话,天线安装在车外。

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